English Grammar Refresh – Ch.5 Word Choice and Word Order (some/somewhat/somewhere, able/enable, after/afterwards,no/not/none/never, farther/further)
Ch.5 Word Choice and Word Order – Continued…
Some vs. Somewhat vs. Somewhere
1) Some + 단수명사 : 형용사. “어떤”
Telecommuting is some form of computer communication.
Some + 복수명사 : 형용사. “약간의”
Technicians removed some papers from the safe.
Some : 대명사. “약간의 사람/것”
Some of the photons collided with the electrons.
2) Somewhat: 부사. “다소”
The President calmed down somewhat.
3) Somewhere: 부사, 명사. “어딘가”
We have to find a safe port somewhere between here and there.
Able vs. Enable
1) Able: 형용사, “be+able+to 부정사”
Few American painters were able to achieve the kind of abstract simplicity.
2) Enable: 동사. “enable + 목적어+ to 부정사”
Computers have enabled people to understand science better.
After vs. Afterwards
1) After : 전치사, 접속사 가능
After breakfast, Catherine insisted on my bringing a chair.
2) Afterwards: 부사, “그 후에”
I will take you on a vacation afterwards.
부정표현 (No, Not, None, Never)
1) No: 한정사, 뒤에 무관사 명사 사용
You have no right to keep us here.
2) Not: 부사, 동사부정, 부사 부정, 부분 부정, 강조
Television was not invented by any one person. (부사, 동사부정)
Not surprisingly, a scientist in California invented the Richter scale used to measure earthquakes. (부사부정)
Not all the conclusions scientists make are accurate. (부분부정)
I remember not a single thing about him. (강조)
3) None: 대명사, 명사수식 못함.
I have thousands of memories but none of them are mine.
4) Never: 부사. 동사부정. “결코~ 않다”.
I have never seen a movie or a television show.
Farther vs. Further
1) Farther : 거리 (Physical distance)
She was afraid to go farther.
2) Further: 거리, 정도 (metaphorical, or figurative, distance)
L.A is further/farther north than San Diego. 거리. 둘다 사용가능
Humans further endanger the cougar. 정도로 사용.
If you explain further, I’ll kill you.
For more detailed explanation: http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/further-versus-farther.aspx